An investigation into different types of ambiguity used in children’s jokes and into when children understand these different types of ambiguity (using Piaget’s framework of cognitive development and an Incongruity Resolution theory of humour). Findings from the study are aimed at informing content planning and implementation of developmentally appropriate jokes in the primary curriculum – specifically KS2
Right-wing extremism is growing, particularly within the present political climate. While previous academic focus has been on right-wing rhetoric on race, little has examined how its anti-feminist agenda presents itself, especially in relation to sexual offences against women. Recent campaigns to prevent rape on campuses, provide education on consent, and an increasing trend to look at ‘hookup culture’ from a feminist viewpoint have led to the Alternative-Right (Alt-Right) proclaiming that men are often victims of ‘rape paranoia’. Understanding how this extreme right-wing propaganda influences men’s views of rape and sexual assault is crucial in order to develop counter-measures.
The proposed research will be based on linguistic analyses of comments on Alt-Right websites which discuss convictions for rape and sexual assault. The analyses will examine portrayals of convicted rapists presented as being victims of feminist-driven ‘rape paranoia’. Such construals targeted towards young men will be investigated with reference to current radicalisation frameworks. The two main research questions to be addressed by the research are:
- How, linguistically, are rape and sexual assault cases recontextualised by promoters of right-wing extremism?
- Which of the recontextualised features are the most salient for audience members who comment within the online forums?
My thesis explores the dynamics of choice in digital text construction. Specifically, it focuses on the development of academic writing from a social semiotic viewpoint, drawing on Systemic Functional Linguistics (e.g. Halliday), semiotic sociology (e.g. Bernstein), and sociogenetic psychology (e.g. Vygotsky). Its primary aims are: (i) To contribute to the dearth of longitudinal studies that provide an emic understanding of the development of academic writing practices, particular with regard to L2 writers; (ii) To illustrate how the logogenesis of texture can reveal the ontogenetic development and potential of the individual with regard to context and co-text; (iii) Demonstrate how a more holistic approach to the study of writing development can be beneficial to advancing theory, educational practice, and interdisciplinary knowledge.
This PhD project aims to examine the accents of English spoken in Cardiff from the perspective of dialect levelling – a process occurring across Britain whereby some regional accent variants are losing ground in favour of supralocal variants. Apparent-time methodology will be used along with archive data in order to see any changes that have occurred and are occurring in Cardiff English, which will be identified by a range of phonological and morphosyntactic features. Cardiff’s history of diversity and in-migration make it an interesting location to examine from this perspective, as it is accepted that these factors have already played a role in the difference and ‘non-Welshness’ of CE when compared to other South Walian Englishes.
The data will consist of sociolinguistic interviews with older and younger speakers from Cardiff, and archive audio recordings from the 1980s and 1990s. Mixed methods in variationist sociolinguistics will be used to analyse the rates of selected features across the datasets, as this approach can give a fuller understanding of any processes underlying language change.
My proposed research focuses on the nature and degree of nominality. While it is widely accepted that nouns and verbs constitute two separate word classes, this distinction has been shown to be unsatisfactory due to variably applied criteria which inconsistently mix morphology, syntax and semantics. For example, one problem is that semantic distinctions such as event vs object are not reliable, e.g. the noun ‘fire’ behaves verbally, like a deverbal noun, but this meaning is not inherited from a verb. It can be said that the concept Grammatical Metaphor (GM) has provided some insight into the broad area of nominalization, however, it has been shown that GM does not account for all complex nominals. Therefore, this research proposes to determine empirically how the nature and degree of nominality can be evaluated, as well as evaluate the extent to which GM can account for the meanings of nominal expressions.
My proposed research focuses on the indeterminate nature of certain types of verbs. Theories address the categorisation of verbs in terms of grammatical and semantic approaches, however do not identify the language processes involved and whether these categories have any psychological validity. Certain verbs are problematic with regards to categorisation, for example in behavioural processes the grammar and the semantics encode different information. Therefore, this research proposes to merge what is already known about these problematic verbs with psycholinguistic testing, in order to identify how conceptual events that are being represented are processed and categorized by speakers.
My proposed research focuses on the representation of migrants on social media, specifically, on Twitter. My research aims to investigate how users ‘talk’ about migrants, and how other users interact with such talk: whether they negotiate, contest or co-construct views. The form of interaction aims to be investigated in terms of the profile of the users, whether they are big news corporations, or laypeople, and whether such statuses affect the negotiation of representations.
My proposed research will explore the potential for a bridging communicative stance that can allow for more effective communication between elite and populist discourse communities, using for its case study reports on the experience of circus-based performing arts events.
A multi-methodology approach will draw from the fields of Audience Research and Corpus-based Discourse Analysis, examining evaluative language use in corpora of ‘legitimate’ public texts (publicity materials and published reviews), and transcripts of ‘lay’ audience member responses (from focus group activity with circus attendees).
The thesis will highlight and address any issues of conflict between the value systems of text producers and target audiences, laying groundwork for more effective communication strategies to be developed that integrate multiple value systems.
Following the work of Fairclough on the political rhetoric of New Labour (2000; 2010), this research will attempt to diachronically analyse the rhetoric of the Conservative Party in order to examine the similarities and differences in the current rhetorical strategies of both political Parties. Fairclough connected rhetorical strategies of New Labour to changes in the mode of governance: the incorporation of marketing practices into the political decision making process was claimed to be connected to linguistic patterning in a corpus of New Labour texts. Since the modern Conservative Party also employs such marketing practices, there is reason to expect some aspects of linguistic continuity in rhetorical strategies. If continuity in rhetorical strategies of two major political Parties were taken to be damaging to the concept of political representation, this investigation could, therefore, have powerful implications for the state of democracy as we know it.
Working in partnership with NSPCC Cymru/Wales, this PhD will linguistically analyse victims’ own accounts of being groomed online.
Research into how the grooming process operates has until recently focused on offline contexts. Progressively, there has been a growing awareness of the need to explore how grooming operates in online spaces. To date, much of this research has focused on offender profiling. Research into the victims’ perspective of online grooming remains scarce. The research that exists tends to focus on risk and vulnerability factors, often using qualitative interview or survey methods that provide secondary, retrospective accounts.
This project will build on research that identifies online grooming as a communicative process, specifically aiming to explore how the victim/child talks about the experience of being groomed online. It is envisaged that, by exploring the under-researched topic of the victim’s perspective using hitherto under-utilised methodologies (linguistics and action research), this research will both advance understanding of online grooming communication and apply its findings to practice enhancement geared towards better prevention and, ultimately, improved protection for children.
My project explores the use of linguistic features to navigate agency in narratives written by offenders before they commit crimes. It will take the form of a diachronic corpus stylistic analysis of pre-crime manifestos, diaries and vlogs, and will aim to analyse how agency changes as the perpetrators move closer to committing their crimes, with a view to developing a diachronic model of agency in pre-crime narratives.
Working closely with a Welsh health board, this research will take a qualitative approach in examining the dynamics of multidisciplinary teamwork in clinical practice, with the objective of identifying existing barriers and facilitators to effective interdisciplinary communication.
Combining linguistic and ethnographic approaches will contribute to development of a holistic understanding of social and communicative processes, and the way in which these impact on multidisciplinary teamwork in the context of on-ward practice.
It is hoped that the research outcomes will contribute to the evidence base utilised in development of training and support strategies aimed at optimising efficient health communication across multidisciplinary teams in Welsh hospitals.
The project presents a synchronic, local and group-specific report of the various uses of English in urban India. I chose to study the everyday interaction of young members of the so-called middle-class in one of India’s big cities. I regard the middle-class as a discursively constructed social stratum which is ideologically intertwined with language. I am planning to observe a community of practice (Lave and Wenger 1995) – ideally a friendship clique – and analyse their habitual uses of linguistic and social interaction. Thus speakers will not be studied individually but in an environment of collaborating actors who are jointly negotiating, contesting and refining personal and group identities. Above and beyond a description, the research is therefore able to explore the social meaning of linguistic performances.
My thesis focuses on communication between police officers and alleged victims at the scene during domestic abuse call-outs in England and Wales. Having been a largely unexplored site of empirical research, call-out interactions are now accessible due to the proliferation of police body-worn video (BWV). The study takes a linguistic ethnographic approach to explore the interpersonal work done by both police and alleged victims at the scene.
This project is motivated by the belief that a more contextualised and nuanced understanding of these pivotal interactions could inform the improvement of services provided by the police and other agencies to those affected by domestic abuse.
Often in police interviews where an interpreter is present, the interviewers and interviewees address the interpreter instead of each other; occasionally they might switch from one to another (sometimes more than once) in the course of the same interview. This project aims to use naturally-occurring data to investigate, from a discourse-analytical perspective, the possible consequences of this phenomenon in terms of rapport-building and the achievement of conversational goals.
Previous research in Canada has shown that students in French immersion classrooms often struggle to acquire the range of registers available to L1 speakers and so do not reach full sociolinguistic competence. The situation in Wales differs insofar as pupils from Welsh-speaking and non-Welsh-speaking homes are taught together. There has, however, been no work which compares the acquisition of sociolinguistic competence among pupils from these two backgrounds.
Looking at the spoken Welsh forms that pupils are exposed to inside and outside of the classroom, the project will answer the following research questions:
- To what extent is there variation in pupils’ linguistic registers?
- To what extent do other social factors (home language, use of Welsh in the community, use of Welsh outside school) affect sociolinguistic competence?
Cardiff University’s Centre for Language and Communication Research and Swansea University’s Language Research Centre match compatibility with distinctiveness and complementary offerings. Swansea specialises in language testing and media discourse and memory. Cardiff offers sociolinguistics (especially variation), functional grammar, language and law (especially courtroom discourse and police-lay interaction), word association, formulaic language, language and ageing, including dementia interaction, multimodality including graphic novels and comics and corpus linguistics. The pathway is therefore located in a dynamic hub for the development of new theory at the interface of language form, function, use and processing, and corpus-based discourse linguistics.
The Linguistics pathway sits within a rich research environment, recognised in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework for its very high quality and containing several major externally-funded research projects. It offers all students opportunities such as discourse analytic training, deepening understanding of the richness and potential of theoretically-informed and linguistically-mediated approaches to content analysis. Corpus linguistics training is also on offer, enabling the examination of large bodies of text for patterns.
Students on this pathway are fully engaged in broader research activities, including committed involvement in our research committee, student-staff panel, postgraduate research seminar series and other forums, and in social events, which, like the summer postgraduate research conference, are organised by the students themselves.
Students on the ‘1+3’ route complete the specialist Language and Communication Research Masters programme which has a linguistically-oriented exemplification of core concepts and techniques. Subject-specific training and student development continues throughout the doctorate including two annual PhD conferences with external expert guests, providing students with feedback on the content and presentation of their research.