Charging regimes within immigration control and enforcement have broadened in scope exponentially. The influx of revenue extraction has contributed to creating a hostile environment for migrants. This research aims to understand the interplay between charging regimes and immigration control and enforcement more broadly.
This research aims to explore three distinct, but related charging regimes: (1) immigration enforcement, such as carrier sanctions (2) immigration citizenship, such as visa fees and (3) NHS surcharges. This research will explore the impact on those who directly experience such charging regimes and the impact upon the individuals and institutions enforcing them.